Bladder outlet decline

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Decline in bladder outlet is the process of gradual atrophy in the distal structures to the bladder in the urinary system.[1] It happens alongside with atrophy of the reproductive system in females. It is one of the contributing factors for disorders like stress incontinence.[2]

It is commonly associated with decline in urethral resistance pressure.[3]


  1. ^ Hazzard's Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology (7th ed.). McGraw Hill Professional. 2016. p. 803. ISBN 9780071833462.
  2. ^ Kane, Robert L.; Ouslander, Joseph G.; Resnick, Barbara; Malone, Michael L. (2017). Essentials of Clinical Geriatrics (8th ed.). McGraw Hill Professional. p. 205. ISBN 9781259860522.
  3. ^ Schäfer, Werner (1995). "Analysis of bladder-outlet function with the linearized passive urethral resistance relation, linPURR, and a disease-specific approach for grading obstruction: from complex to simple". World Journal of Urology. 13 (1): 47–58. doi:10.1007/BF00182666. PMID 7773317.